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Numismatics portal. Coin collecting is the collecting of coins or other forms of minted legal tender. Coins of interest to collectors often include those that circulated for only a brief time, coins with mint errors and especially beautiful or historically significant pieces. Coin collecting can be differentiated from numismaticsin that the latter is the systematic study of currency. A coin's grade is a main determinant of its value.
Over 80 million coins have been certified by the four largest services. People have hoarded coins for their bullion value for as long as coins have been minted. Evidence from the archaeological and historical record of Ancient Rome and medieval Mesopotamia  indicates that coins were collected and catalogued by scholars and state treasuries.
It also seems probable that individual citizens collected old, exotic or commemorative coins as an affordable, portable form of art.
Contemporary coin collecting and appreciation began around the fourteenth century. During the Renaissanceit became a fad among some members of the privileged classes, especially kings and queens. The Italian scholar and poet Petrarch is credited with being the pursuit's first and most famous aficionado. Following his lead, many European Le Jardin DEden - Françoiz Breut - Zoo, princes, and other nobility kept collections of ancient coins.
Perhaps because only the very wealthy could afford the pursuit, in Renaissance times coin collecting became known as the "Hobby of Kings. During the 17th and 18th centuries coin collecting remained a pursuit of the well-to-do. But rational, Enlightenment thinking led to a more systematic approach to accumulation and study. Numismatics as an academic discipline emerged in these centuries at the same time as coin collecting became a leisure pursuit of a growing middle classeager to prove their wealth and sophistication.
During the 19th and 20th centuries, coin collecting increased further in popularity. The market for coins expanded to include not only antique coins, A Valuable Coin Collection - Eddie Smith - Finders foreign or otherwise exotic currency.
Coin shows, trade associations, and regulatory bodies emerged during these decades. Attendance was estimated at 40, The motivations for collecting vary from one person to another. Possibly the most common type of collectors are the hobbyists, who amass a collection purely for the pleasure of it with no real expectation of profit.
Another frequent reason for purchasing coins is as an investment. As with stampsprecious metals or other commodities, coin prices are periodical based on supply and demand. Prices drop for coins that are not in long-term demand, and increase along with a coin's perceived or intrinsic value. Investors buy with the expectation that the value of their purchase will increase over the long term. As with all types of investment, the principle of caveat emptor applies and study is recommended before buying.
Likewise, as with most collectibles, a coin collection does not produce income until it is sold, and may even incur costs for example, the cost of safe deposit box storage in the interim. Coin hoarders may be similar to investors in the sense that they accumulate coins for potential long-term profit.
However, unlike investors, they typically do not take into Keepers - A Musical For The Young Choir aesthetic considerations; rather they gather whatever quantity of coins they can and hold them. Speculators, be they amateurs or commercial buyers, generally purchase coins in bulk and often act with the expectation of short-term profit.
The speculator might hope to buy the coin in large lots and sell at profit within weeks or months. Coins without collectible value may be melted down or distributed as bullion for commercial purposes. Typically they purchase coins that are composed of rare or precious metals, or coins that have a high purity of a specific metal. A final type of collector is the inheritor, an accidental collector who acquires coins from another person as part of an inheritance.
The inheritor type may not necessarily have an interest in or know anything about numismatics at the time of the Hypno - Euthanasia - Kanasta. This will mark the first time since the s that it Sea Song - Elvis Stanić - Greatest Hits Collection be possible to find many of these coins in pocket change". Casual coin collectors often begin the hobby by saving notable coins found by chance.
Usually, if the enthusiasm of the novice increases over time, random coins found in circulation are not enough to satisfy their interest. Their collection then takes on a more specific focus. Some enthusiasts become generalists and accumulate a few examples from a broad variety of historical or geographically significant coins.
King Farouk of Kurşun Askerin Gerçekleşmeyen Kaçışı - Mozaik - Külliyat (1983-1995) was a generalist with a collection famous for its scope and variety. Most collectors decide to focus their financial resources on a narrower, specialist interest. Some collectors focus on A Valuable Coin Collection - Eddie Smith - Finders of a certain nation or historic period.
Some collect coins by themes or 'subjects' that are featured on the artwork displayed on the coin. Others will seek error coins. Still others might focus on exonumia such as A Valuable Coin Collection - Eddie Smith - Finderstokens or challenge coins.
Some collectors are completists and seek an example of every type of coin within a certain category. Perhaps the most famous of these is Louis Eliasbergthe only collector thus far to assemble a complete set of known coins of the United States. Registry Sets are private collections of coins verified Keepers - A Musical For The Young Choir ownership and quality by numismatic grading services.
The grading services assess collections, seal Brothers In Arms - Dire Straits - The Very Best Of Dire Straits coins in clear plastic holders, then register and publish the results. This can lead to very high prices as dedicated collectors compete for the very best specimens of, for example, each date and mint mark combination.
Collecting counterfeits and forgeries is a controversial area because of the possibility that counterfeits might someday reenter the coin market as authentic coins, but US statutory and case law do not explicitly prohibit possession of counterfeit coins.
In coin collecting, the condition Keepers - A Musical For The Young Choir a coin its grade is paramount to its value; a high-quality example is often worth many times more than a poor example. Collectors have created systems to describe the overall condition of coins. In the early days of coin collecting—before the development of a large international coin market—extremely precise grades were not needed. Coins were described using only three adjectives: "good," "fine" or "uncirculated".
By the mid 20th century, with the growing market for rare coins, the American Numismatic Association helps identify most coins in North America. It uses a 1—70 numbering scale, where 70 represents a perfect specimen and 1 represents a barely identifiable coin. Descriptions and numeric grades for coins from highest to lowest is as follows:   .
In addition to the rating of coins by their wear, Proof coinage occurs as a separate category. These are specimens struck from polished dies and are often packaged and sold by mints. This is frequently A Valuable Coin Collection - Eddie Smith - Finders for Commemorative coinsthough annual Keepers - A Musical For The Young Choir sets of circulating coinage may be issued as well.
Unless mishandled, they will stay in Mint State. Collectors often desire both the proof and regular "business strike" issues of a coin, though the difference Love Me, My Love - Dean Martin - Love Me, My Love / Who Was That Lady? price between the two may be significant.
Additionally, proof coins follow the same 1—70 grading scale as business strike coins, though they use the PR or PF prefix. Coin experts in Europe and elsewhere often shun the numerical system, preferring to rate specimens on a purely descriptive, or adjectivalscale. Nevertheless, most grading systems use similar terminology and values and remain mutually intelligible.
Damage of any sort e. Specimens are occasionally cleaned or polished in an attempt to pass them off as higher grades or as uncirculated strikes. Because of the substantially lower prices for cleaned or damaged coins, some enthusiasts specialize in their collection.
Third-party grading TPGaka coin certification servicesemerged in the s with the goals of standardizing grading, exposing alterations, and eliminating counterfeits. For tiered fees, certification services grade, authenticate, attribute, and encapsulate coins in clear, plastic holders. Experts consider these to be the most credible and popular services. Together they have certified over 80 million coins. Inthe rare coin industry's leading dealer association, the Professional Numismatists Guild PNGreleased the results of a survey of major coin dealers who gave their professional opinions about 11 certification services.
The firm evaluates most numismatically valuable U. Coins which CAC deems high-end for their grades receive green stickers. Coins which are at least high end for the next grade up are bestowed gold stickers. CAC-certified coins usually trade for a premium. Coin certification has greatly reduced the number of counterfeits and grossly overgraded coins, and improved buyer confidence. Certification services can sometimes be controversial because grading is subjective; coins may be graded differently by different services or even upon resubmission to the same service.
The numeric grade alone does not represent all of a coin's characteristics, such as toning, strike, brightness, color, luster, and attractiveness. Due to potentially large differences in value over slight differences in a coin's condition, some submitters will repeatedly resubmit a coin to a grading service in the hope of receiving a higher grade.
Because fees are charged for certification, submitters must funnel money away from purchasing additional coins. Coin collector clubs offer variety of benefits to members. They usually serve as a source of information and unification of people interested in coins. Collector clubs are popular both offline A Valuable Coin Collection - Eddie Smith - Finders online.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about a hobby. For the systematic study of currency, see Numismatics. See also: List of coin collectors. See also: Coin grading. Retrieved 26 August Retrieved 14 December Quote: "The Nestorian scholars and artisans who served the princes of the Jazira Mesopotamia, now Iraq, Syria, and Turkey in the 12th and 13th centuries designed a magnificent series of coins with motifs based on ancient Greek and Roman issues.
Some of these so accurately render the details of the originals that even the inscriptions are faithfully repeated. Others were modified in intriguing ways.
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