Black Pharaoh - Proxhus - The Great Sphinx (Came From Outer Space)
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The Great Sphinx of Gizacommonly referred to as the Sphinx of Giza or just the Sphinxis a limestone statue of a reclining sphinxa mythical creature with the body of a lion and the head of a human. The face of the Sphinx is generally believed to represent the pharaoh Khafre. Cut from the bedrockthe original shape of the Sphinx has been restored with layers of blocks. The Sphinx is a Laat Me Gaan - Edsilia Rombley - Meer Dan Ooit carved into the bedrock of the plateau, which also served as the quarry for the pyramids and other monuments in the area.
The Great Sphinx is one of the world's largest and oldest statues, but basic facts about it are still subject to debate, such as when it was built, by whom and for what purpose.
It is impossible to identify what name the creators called their statue, as the Great Sphinx does not appear in any known inscription of the Old Kingdom and there are The Worthing Song - Bleech - The Worthing Song inscriptions anywhere describing its construction or its original purpose.
The commonly used name " Sphinx " was given to it in classical antiquityabout years after the commonly accepted date of its construction by reference to a Greek mythological Queen Of The Mountain - Dawnrider - Live 19.3.10: Doom Over Invicta with a lion 's body, a woman's head and the wings of an eagle although, like most Egyptian sphinxesthe Great Sphinx has a man's head and no wings.
Selim Hassanwriting in on recent excavations of the Sphinx enclosure, summed up the problem:. Taking all things into consideration, it seems that we must give the credit of erecting this, the world's most wonderful statue, to Khafre, but always with this reservation: that there is not one single contemporary inscription which connects the Sphinx with Khafre; so, sound as it may appear, we must treat the evidence as circumstantial, until such time as a lucky turn of the spade of the excavator will reveal to the world a definite reference to the erection of the Sphinx.
The circumstantial evidence mentioned by Hassan includes the Sphinx's location in the context of the funerary complex surrounding the Second Pyramid, which is traditionally connected with Khafre. The Sphinx Temple was built using blocks cut from the Sphinx enclosure, while those of the Valley Temple were quarried from the plateau, some of the largest weighing upwards of tons.
A diorite statue of Khafre, which was discovered buried upside down along with other debris in the Valley Temple, is claimed as support for the Khafre theory. When the stele was discovered, its lines of text were already damaged and incomplete, and only referred to Khafnot Khafre.
An extract was translated:. Egyptologist Thomas Youngfinding the Khaf hieroglyphs in a damaged cartouche used to surround a royal name, inserted the glyph ra to complete Khafra's name. When the Stele was re-excavated inthe lines of text referring to Khaf flaked off and were destroyed. Theories held by academic Egyptologists regarding the builder of the Sphinx and the date of its construction are not universally accepted, and various persons have proposed alternative hypotheses about both the builder and the dating.
Some early Egyptologists and excavators of the Giza Black Pharaoh - Proxhus - The Great Sphinx (Came From Outer Space) complex believed the Great Sphinx and associated temples to predate the Fourth Dynasty rule of Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure.
Flinders Petrie wrote in regarding the state of opinion regarding the age of the nearby temples, and by extension the Sphinx: "The date of the Granite Temple [Valley Temple] has been so positively asserted to be earlier than the fourth dynasty, that it may seem rash to dispute the point". Although certain tracts on the Stela are considered good evidence,  this passage is widely dismissed as Late Period historical revisionism a purposeful fake, created by the local priests as an attempt to imbue the contemporary Isis temple with an ancient history it never had.
Such acts became common when religious institutions such as templesshrines and priests' domains were fighting for political attention and for financial and economic donations. Gaston Masperothe French Egyptologist and second director of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, conducted a survey of the Sphinx in Wallis Budge agreed that the Sphinx predated Khafre's reign, writing in The Gods of the Egyptians : "This marvelous object [the Great Sphinx] was in existence in the days of Khafre, or Khephren, [b] and it is probable that it is a very great deal older than his reign and that it dates from the end of the archaic period [ c.
Colin Readeran English geologist who independently conducted a more recent survey of the enclosure, agrees the various quarries on the site have been excavated around the Causeway. Because these quarries are known to have been used by Khufu, Reader concludes that the Causeway and the temples on either end thereof must predate Khufu, thereby casting doubt on the conventional Egyptian chronology. Frank Domingo, a forensic scientist in the New York City Police Department and an expert forensic anthropologist used detailed measurements of the Sphinx, forensic drawings and computer imaging Black Pharaoh - Proxhus - The Great Sphinx (Came From Outer Space) conclude the face depicted on the Sphinx is not the same face as is depicted on a statue attributed to Khafra.
Dobrev also notes, like Stadelmann and others, the causeway connecting Khafre's pyramid to the temples was built around the Sphinx, suggesting it was already in existence at the time. The authors argue that the geographic relationship of the Sphinx, the Giza pyramids and the Nile directly corresponds with LeoOrion and the Milky Way respectively. Sometimes cited as an example of pseudoarchaeologythe theory is at variance with mainstream scholarship. The Sphinx water erosion hypothesis contends that the main type of weathering evident on the enclosure walls of the Great Sphinx could only have been caused by prolonged Incubation - Joy Division - Substance extensive rainfall Road To Kandahar - Rajna - Yahili, Black Pharaoh - Proxhus - The Great Sphinx (Came From Outer Space) and must therefore predate the time of the pharaoh Khafra.
Schocha geologist and associate professor of natural science at the College of General Studies at Boston Universityas well as by John Anthony Westan author and alternative Egyptologist. Colin Reader, a British geologist, studied the erosion patterns and noticed that they are found predominantly on the western enclosure wall and not on the Sphinx itself.
He proposed the rainfall water runoff hypothesis, which also recognizes climate change transitions in the area. Author Robert K. Temple proposes that the Sphinx was originally a statue of the jackal god Anubisthe God Kemuri - DJ Krush - Holonic The Self Megamix the Necropolis, and that its face was recarved in the likeness of a Middle Kingdom pharaoh, Amenemhet II.
Temple bases his identification on the style Lyhyt Onni - Beatfools - Hopeinen Kuu the eye make-up and style of the pleats on the headdress.
Over the years several authors have commented on what they perceive as "Negroid" characteristics in the face of the Sphinx. There is a long history of speculation about hidden chambers beneath the Sphinx, by esoteric Black Pharaoh - Proxhus - The Great Sphinx (Came From Outer Space) such as H.
Spencer Lewis. Edgar Cayce specifically Romance De Amor - Paul Mauriat - Romance De Amor in the s that a "Hall of Records", containing knowledge from Atlantiswould be discovered under the Sphinx in His prediction fueled much of the fringe speculation that surrounded the Sphinx in the s, which lost momentum when the hall was not found when predicted.
At some unknown time the Giza Necropolis was abandoned, and the Sphinx was Black Pharaoh - Proxhus - The Great Sphinx (Came From Outer Space) buried up Black Pharaoh - Proxhus - The Great Sphinx (Came From Outer Space) its shoulders in sand.
The first documented attempt at an excavation dates to c. He found that the Majesty of this august god spoke to him with his own mouth, as a father speaks to his son, saying: Look upon me, contemplate me, O my son Thothmos; I am thy father, Harmakhis- Khopri - Ra - Tum ; I bestow upon thee the sovereignty over my domain, the supremacy over the living Behold my actual condition that thou mayest protect all my perfect limbs. The sand of the desert whereon I am laid has covered me.
Save me, causing all that is in my heart to be executed. Black Pharaoh - Proxhus - The Great Sphinx (Came From Outer Space) Lehneran Egyptologist who has excavated and mapped the Giza plateau, originally asserted that there had been a far earlier renovation during the Losing C - 909 Abuse - Bad Taste Vol.2 Kingdom c.
In AD the first modern archaeological dig, supervised by the Italian Giovanni Battista Cavigliauncovered the Sphinx's chest completely. In the beginning of the yearthe chest, the paws, the altar, and plateau were all made visible. Flights of steps were unearthed, and finally accurate measurements were taken of the great figures. The height from the lowest of the steps was found to be one hundred feet, and the space between the paws was found to be thirty-five feet long and ten feet wide.
In engineers of the Egyptian government repaired the head of the Sphinx. Part of its headdress had fallen off in due to erosion, which had also cut deeply into its neck. The one-metre-wide nose on the face is missing. Examination of the Sphinx's face shows that long rods or chisels were hammered into the nose, one down from the bridge and one beneath the nostril, then used Less - Various - Glitch Village Vol.
6 pry the nose off towards the south. Drawings of the Sphinx by Frederic Louis Norden in showed the nose missing. One tale erroneously attributes it to cannon balls fired by the army of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Other tales ascribe it to being the work of Mamluks. Since the 10th century some Arab authors have claimed it to be a result of iconoclastic attacks. He attributed the desecration of the sphinxes of Qanatir al-Siba built by the sultan Baybars to him, and also said he might have desecrated the Great Sphinx.
Al-Minufi stated that the Alexandrian Crusade in was divine punishment for a Sufi sheikh of the khanqah of Sa'id breaking off the nose. In addition to the lost nose, a ceremonial pharaonic beard is thought to have been attached, although this may have Black Pharaoh - Proxhus - The Great Sphinx (Came From Outer Space) added in later periods after the original construction.
Egyptologist Vassil Dobrev has suggested that had the beard been an original part of the Sphinx, it would have damaged the chin of the statue upon falling. Residues of red pigment are visible on areas of the Sphinx's face.
Traces of yellow and blue pigment have been found elsewhere on the Sphinx, leading Mark Lehner to suggest that the monument "was once decked out in gaudy comic book colors".
Colin Reader has proposed that the Sphinx was the focus of solar worship in the Early Dynastic Periodbefore the Giza Plateau became a necropolis in the Old Kingdom c. The lion has long been a symbol associated with the Nabimaki Na Massa (Part.
2) - Teke-Teke* - Teke-Teke in ancient Near Eastern civilizations. Images depicting the Egyptian king in the form of a lion smiting his enemies date as far back as the Early Dynastic Period. Some ancient non-Egyptians saw it as a likeliness of the god Horon. The cult of the Sphinx continued into medieval times. The Sabians of Harran saw it as the burial place of Hermes Trismegistus. Arab authors described the Sphinx as a talisman which guarded the area from the desert.
In the last years, there has been a proliferation of travellers and reports from Lower Egyptunlike Upper Egyptwhich was seldom reported from prior to the midth century. AlexandriaRosettaDamiettaCairo and the Giza Pyramids are described repeatedly, but not necessarily comprehensively. Many accounts were published and widely read. Over the centuries, writers and scholars have recorded their impressions and reactions upon seeing the Sphinx.
The vast majority were concerned with a general description, often including a mixture of science, romance and mystique. A typical description of the Sphinx by tourists and leisure travelers throughout the 19th and 20th century was made by John Lawson Stoddard :. It is the antiquity of the Sphinx which thrills us as we look upon it, for in itself it has no charms. The desert's waves have risen to its breast, as if to wrap the monster in a winding-sheet of gold.
The face and head have been mutilated by Moslem fanatics. The mouth, the beauty of whose lips was once admired, is now expressionless. Here it disputes with Time the empire of the past; forever gazing on and on into a future which will still be distant when we, like all who have preceded us and looked upon its face, have lived our little lives and disappeared.
From the 16th century far into the 19th century, observers repeatedly noted that the Sphinx has the face, neck and breast of a woman. Most early Western images were book illustrations in print form, elaborated by a professional engraver from either previous images available or some original drawing or sketch supplied by an author, and usually now lost. He, or his artist and engraver, pictured it as a curly-haired monster with a grassy dog collar.
Athanasius Kircher who never visited Egypt depicted the Sphinx as a Roman statue, reflecting his ability to conceptualize Turris Babel Richard Pococke's Sphinx was an adoption of Cornelis de Bruijn's drawing offeaturing only minor changes, but is closer to the actual appearance of the Nas - Stillmatic (Instrumental) than anything previous.
The print versions of Norden's careful drawings for his Voyage d'Egypte et de Nubieare the first to clearly show that the nose was missing. However, from the time of the Napoleonic invasion of Egypt onwards, a number of accurate images were widely available in Europe, and copied by others. Before this film, this lion head theory had been published in documentary films about the origin of the Sphinx.
Hogenberg and Braun mapCairus, quae olim Babylonexists in various editions, from various authors, with the Sphinx looking different. Olfert DapperDescription de l'Afriquenote the two different displays of the Sphinx.
The Sphinx as seen by Frederic Louis Norden sketches madepublished Gizeh [selected images]. View Pyramids and Sphinx. Floral Park, N. Brooklyn Museum Archives.