Gerry Mulligan Quartet Featuring Chet Baker - Gerry Mulligan Quartet
Label: Pacific Jazz Records - PJ-1207 • Format: Vinyl LP • Country: US • Genre: Jazz • Style: Cool Jazz
Gerald Joseph Mulligan April 6, — January 20, was an American jazz saxophonist, clarinetist, composer and arranger. Mulligan's pianoless quartet of the early s with trumpeter Chet Baker is still regarded as one of the best cool jazz groups.
Mulligan was also a skilled pianist and played several other reed instruments. Several of his compositions, such as " Walkin' Shoes " and "Five Brothers", have become jazz standards. His father was a Wilmington, Delawarenative of Irish descent; his mother a Philadelphia native of half Irish and half German descent. Gerry was the youngest of four sons with George, Phil and Don preceding him.
George Mulligan's career as an engineer necessitated frequent moves through numerous cities. When Gerry was less than a year old, the family moved to Marion, Ohiowhere his father accepted a job with the Marion Power Shovel Company. With the demands of a large home and four young boys to raise, Mulligan's mother hired an African-American nanny named Lily Rose, who became especially fond of the youngest Mulligan. As he became older, Mulligan began spending time at Rose's house and was especially amused by Rose's player pianowhich Mulligan later recalled as having rolls by numerous players, including Fats Waller.
Black musicians sometimes came through town, and because many motels would not take them, they often had to stay at homes within the black community. The young Mulligan occasionally met such musicians staying at Rose's home. The family's moves continued with stops in southern New Jersey where Mulligan lived with his maternal grandmotherChicago, Illinois, and Kalamazoo, Michiganwhere Mulligan lived for three years and attended Catholic school.
When the school moved into a new building and established music courses, Mulligan decided to play clarinet in the school's nascent orchestra.
Mulligan made an attempt at arranging with the Richard Rodgers song " Lover ", but the arrangement was seized prior to its The Song Of The Gremlin (Part Two) - Robert Calvert - Captain Lockheed And The Starfighters reading by an overzealous nun who was taken aback by the title on the arrangement.
While in Reading, Mulligan began studying clarinet with dance-band musician Sammy Correnti,  who also encouraged Mulligan's interest in arranging. Mulligan also began playing saxophone professionally in dance bands in Philadelphiaan hour and a half or so away. The Mulligan family next moved to Philadelphia, where Gerry attended the West Philadelphia Catholic High School for Boys and organized a school big bandMovement I - Lussuria - Profumo Della Signora In Nero which he also wrote arrangements.
When Mulligan was sixteen, he approached Johnny Warrington at local radio station WCAU about writing arrangements for the station's house band. Warrington was impressed and began buying Mulligan's arrangements. Mulligan dropped No More - Ray J - This Aint A Game of high school during his senior year to pursue work with a touring band.
At the conclusion of Mulligan's three-month contract, Tucker told Mulligan that he should move on to another band that was a little less "tame". Mulligan went back to Philadelphia and began writing for Elliot Lawrencea pianist and composer who had taken over for Warrington as the band leader at WCAU. Mulligan next began arranging for the Claude Thornhill Orchestra, occasionally sitting in as a member of the reed section.
Thornhill's arranging staff included Gil Evanswhom Mulligan had met while working Gerry Mulligan Quartet Featuring Chet Baker - Gerry Mulligan Quartet the Krupa band. Mulligan eventually began living with Evans, at the time that Evans' apartment on West 55th Street became a regular hangout for a number of jazz musicians working on creating a new Girlfriend - Ne-Yo - In My Own Words idiom.
The band only played a handful of live performances a two-week engagement at the Royal Roost jazz club and two nights at the Clique Club. Gerry Mulligan Quartet Featuring Chet Baker - Gerry Mulligan Quartet , over the next couple of years, Davis reformed the nonet on three occasions to record twelve pieces for release as singles.
These were eventually Gerry Mulligan Quartet Featuring Chet Baker - Gerry Mulligan Quartet on a Capitol Records long-playing record, titled Birth of the Cool. Mulligan wrote and arranged three of the tunes recorded "Rocker", "Venus de Milo", and "Jeru", the last named after himselfand arranged a further three "Deception", "Godchild", and "Darn That Dream". He was also with Davis, Konitz and Barber one of only four musicians who played on all the recordings.
Despite the chilly reception by audiences ofthe Davis nonet has been judged by history as one of the most influential groups in jazz history, creating a sound that, despite its East Coast origins, became known as West Coast Jazz. During his period of occasional work with the Davis nonet between andMulligan also regularly performed with and arranged for trombonist Kai Winding.
This brought Mulligan additional recognition. Mulligan also arranged for and recorded with bands led by Georgie Auld and Chubby Jackson. By this point, he had mastered a melodic and linear playing style, inspired by Lester Youngthat he would retain for the rest of his career.
In the spring ofseeking better employment opportunities, Mulligan headed west to Los Angeles with his girlfriend, pianist Gail Madden.
Through an acquaintance with arranger Bob GraettingerMulligan started writing arrangements for Stan Kenton 's Orchestra. While most of Mulligan's work for Kenton were pedestrian arrangements that Kenton needed to fill out money-making dance performances, Mulligan was able to throw in some more substantial original works along the way. His compositions "Walking Shoes" and "Young Blood" stand out as embodiments of the Gerry Mulligan Quartet Featuring Chet Baker - Gerry Mulligan Quartet style that became Mulligan's signature.
During the Monday night jam sessions, a young trumpeter named Chet Baker began sitting in with Mulligan. Mulligan and Baker began recording together, although they were unsatisfied with the results. Around that time, vibraphonist Red Norvo 's trio began headlining at The Haig, thus leaving no need to keep the grand piano that had been brought in for Erroll Garner 's stay at the club.
Faced with a dilemma of what to do for a rhythm section, Mulligan decided to build on earlier experiments and perform as a pianoless quartet with Baker on trumpet, Bob Whitlock on bass and Chico Hamilton on drums later Mulligan himself would occasionally double on piano. These early live dates were Gerry Mulligan Quartet Featuring Chet Baker - Gerry Mulligan Quartet by Dick Bock on a portable reel-to-reel tape deck. Bock along with Roy Max Deejay - 2 (The Vibes) would soon after, start the Pacific Jazz label and release Mulligan's records.
These three informal sessions took place in June, July, and August at the Hollywood Hills cottage Gotta Be That Way - Various - SPEX CD #51 recording engineer Phil Turetsky. Baker's melodic style fit well with Mulligan's, leading them to create improvised contrapuntal textures free from the rigid confines of a piano-enforced chordal structure.
While novel Gerry Mulligan Quartet Featuring Chet Baker - Gerry Mulligan Quartet the time in sound and style, this ethos of contrapuntal group improvisation hearkened back to the formative days of jazz. Despite their very different backgrounds — Mulligan, a classically trained New Yorker, and Baker, from Oklahoma and a much more instinctive player — they had an almost psychic rapport and Mulligan later remarked that, "I had never experienced anything like that before and not really since.
This fortuitous collaboration came to an abrupt end with Mulligan's arrest on narcotics charges in mid leading to six months at Sheriff's Honor Farm. Both Mulligan and Baker had, like many of their peers, become heroin addicts.
However, while Mulligan was in prison, Baker transformed his lyrical trumpet style, gentle tenor voice and matinee-idol looks into independent stardom. Gerry Mulligan Quartet Featuring Chet Baker - Gerry Mulligan Quartet when upon his release Mulligan attempted to rehire Baker, the trumpeter declined the offer for financial reasons.
They did briefly reunite at the Newport Jazz Festival and would occasionally get together for performances and recordings up through a performance at Carnegie Hall. But in later years their relationship became strained as Mulligan, with considerable effort, would manage to kick his habit, while Baker's addiction bedevilled him professionally and personally almost constantly until his Gerry Mulligan Quartet Featuring Chet Baker - Gerry Mulligan Quartet in Mulligan continued the quartet format with valve trombonist Bob Brookmeyer replacing Baker, although Mulligan and Brookmeyer both occasionally played piano.
This quartet structure remained the core of Mulligan's groups throughout the rest of the s with sporadic personnel changes and expansions of the group with trumpeters Jon Eardley and Art Farmersaxophonists Zoot SimsAl Cohn and Lee Konitzand vocalist Annie Ross. Mulligan also studied piano with Suezenne Fordham, who was a member of the inner circle of jazz players in New York.
She was sought out by jazz musicians of the era to coach them to improve their piano technique. She and Mulligan also had a personal relationship from through Mulligan formed his first "Concert Jazz Band" in the spring of Partly an attempt to revisit big band music in a smaller setting, the band varied in size and personnel, with the core group being six brass, five reeds including Mulligan and a pianoless two-piece rhythm section though as in the earlier quartets Mulligan or Brookmeyer sometimes doubled on piano.
The band also recorded an album of songs sung by Mulligan's girlfriend Judy Holliday in The band toured and recorded extensively through the end ofultimately producing five albums for Verve Records. Mulligan resumed work with small groups in and appeared with other groups sporadically notably in festival situations. Mulligan continued to work intermittently in small group settings until the end of his life, although performing dates started to become more infrequent during the mid s.
Thereafter, Mulligan and Brubeck would work together sporadically until the final year of Mulligan's life. InMulligan created his most significant work for big band in over a decade, for the album The Age of Steam.
At various times Industrial Frequency - Versus Overdrive (File, Album) the s he performed with Charles Mingus. The Concert Jazz Band was "reformed" with younger players, including a full-time pianist in Mitchel Formaninand toured at various times through the s.
Mulligan, like many jazz musicians of his era, occasionally recorded with strings. While in Milan for the recording sessions, Mulligan met his future wife, Countess Franca Rota Borghini Baldovinetti, a freelance photojournalist and reporter. In the s and s, Mulligan worked to build and promote a repertoire Gerry Mulligan Quartet Featuring Chet Baker - Gerry Mulligan Quartet baritone saxophone music for orchestra.
InMulligan commissioned Harry Freedman to write The Sax Chronicleswhich was an arrangement of some of Mulligan's melodies in pastiche styles. In JuneMulligan completed and performed his first orchestral commission, Entente for Baritone Saxophone and Orchestrawith the Filarmonia Venetia. In the Concordia Orchestra premiered Momo's Clocka work for orchestra without saxophone solo that was inspired by a book by German author Michael Ende.
Throughout Mulligan's orchestral work and until the end of his life, Mulligan maintained an active career performing and recording The Kane Gang - Brother Brother — usually with a quartet that included a piano. InMulligan contacted Miles Davis about revisiting the music from the germane Birth of the Cool album.
Davis had recently performed some of his Gil Evans collaborations with Quincy Jones at the Montreux Jazz Festival and was enthusiastic.
Re-Birth of the Cool released in featured Gerry Mulligan Quartet Featuring Chet Baker - Gerry Mulligan Quartet charts from Birth of the Cooland a new nonet which included Lewis and Barber from the original Davis band.
Mulligan appeared at the Brecon Jazz Festival Mulligan's final recording was a quartet album with guestsDragonflyrecorded in the summer of and released on the Telarc label. Mulligan died in Darien, Connecticuton January 20,at the age of 68, following complications from knee surgery. His widow Franca — to whom he had been married since — said he had also been suffering from liver cancer. Upon Mulligan's death, his library and numerous personal effects including a gold-plated Conn baritone saxophone were given to the Library of Congress.
Mulligan's first film appearance was probably with Krupa's orchestra playing alto saxophone in the RKO short film Follow That Music Mulligan had small roles in the films I Want to Live! Mulligan also performed numerous times on television programmes during his career. Although the creative team had great hopes for the work, it never made it past a workshop production at the University of Alabama.
From Wikipedia, the free Itchycoo Park - Small Faces - Itchycoo Park. American jazz baritone saxophonist, arranger and composer. The New York Times. Retrieved December 6, Retrieved July 20, Chicago Review Press.
Jerry Jazz Musician. Retrieved November 22, March 29,
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