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She was the fourth and final member of the South Dakota class of fast battleships built for the United States Navy in the s. A requirement to be armored against the same caliber of guns as they carried, combined with the displacement restriction, resulted in cramped ships. Overcrowding was exacerbated by wartime modifications that considerably strengthened their anti-aircraft batteries and significantly increased their crews. After entering service, Alabama was briefly deployed to strengthen the British Home Fleettasked with protecting convoys to the Soviet Union.
Inshe was transferred to the Pacific for operations against Japan; the first of these was the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign that began in November that year. While operating in the Pacific, she served primarily as an escort for the fast carrier task force to protect the aircraft carriers from surface and air attacks. She also frequently bombarded Japanese positions in support of Funky Beats - Various - Defqon.1 Weekend Festival - Dragonblood assaults.
After a refit in earlyshe returned to the fleet for operations during the Battle of Okinawa and the series of attacks on the Japanese mainland in July and August, including several bombardments of coastal industrial targets. She was decommissioned in and assigned to the Pacific Reserve Fleetwhere she remained until when she was stricken from the Naval Vessel Register. A campaign to save the ship from the breakers' yard succeeded in raising the necessary funds, and Alabama was preserved as a museum ship in Mobile BayAlabama.
The South Dakota class was ordered in the context of global naval rearmament during the breakdown of the Washington treaty system that had controlled battleships construction during the s and early s.
She carried three Vought OS2U Kingfisher floatplanes for aerial reconnaissance, which were launched by a pair of aircraft catapults on her fantail. As designed, the ship was equipped with an anti-aircraft battery of twelve 1. The main armored belt was Alabama received a series of modifications through her wartime career, consisting primarily of additions to anti-aircraft battery and various types of radar sets.
The first addition was the installation of SC air search radar infitted in the foremast, which was later replaced with an SK type set. At the same time, an В Разлуке - Наталия Рождественская* - Романсы surface search radar was installed on the forward superstructure ; a second SG set was added to the main mast after experiences during the Guadalcanal campaign in Inshe received a Mark 3 fire-control radarmounted on her conning tower to assist in the direction of her main battery guns.
The Mark 3 was quickly replaced with more modern Mark 8 fire-control radar, and Mark 4 radars for the secondary battery guns. Alabama also received a TDY jammer. Inher Product Van 80 - Kraantje Pappie - Guardian Van De Real Shit III spotting scopes were replaced with Mark 27 microwave radar sets. The ship's light anti-aircraft battery was gradually expanded.
Two more were to be added to the forecastle inbut experience with other ships demonstrated these to be excessively wet in most sea conditions and thus unusable, so they were never installed aboard Alabama.
She was slated to have these exchanged for forty twin mounts, but the work was not done before the war ended and she was removed from service.
She was launched on 16 February ; Crane Ship No. Fitting-out work then commenced, and on 11 November she began her shakedown cruise in the Chesapeake Bay. She then began initial training to prepare the ship's crew for wartime service, first out of Casco BayMaine. On 11 JanuaryAlabama returned to Chesapeake Bay for further training before moving to Norfolk. She was then assigned to Task Group TG Alabama ' s first deployment came in April with the temporary assignment to the British Home Fleet to reinforce La Historia Del Rock - Saint James Stars - Parts: Unknown Weight: Unknown Allied naval forces available to escort the Arctic convoys to the Soviet Union.
At the time, the British had sent several capital ships to the Mediterranean Sea to support the Allied invasion of Sicilystripping away forces necessary to counter German naval strength in Norway, most significantly the battleship Tirpitz. AlabamaSouth Dakotaand several British units covered an operation to reinforce the island of Spitzbergen in the Arctic Ocean in early June.
The following month, Alabama took part in Operation Governor, a demonstration to distract German attention during the Sicily invasion. The Allies also hoped to lure out Tirpitz to sink her, but the Germans took no notice of the ships and remained in port. On 1 August, Alabama and South Dakota were detached to return to the United States; they departed immediately and arrived in Norfolk on 9 August, where Alabama underwent an overhaul in preparation for operations against Japanese forces in the Pacific Theater.
Alabama emerged from the shipyard on 20 August and began the voyage to the Pacific by way of the Panama Canalwhich she transited on 25 August. She reached Efate in the New Hebrides on 14 September. On arriving in the south Pacific, Alabama embarked on an extensive training program that lasted for a month and a half to prepare the battleship to operate with the fast carrier task force.
She then steamed to Fiji on 7 November before departing four days later to support the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaignwhich began with the invasion of Tarawa on 20 November. Alabama escorted the aircraft carriers while they struck Japanese airfields on nearby islands in the Marshalls to neutralize their ability to interfere with the landing.
She then supported the landing on Betio in the Tarawa Atoll on 20 November, followed by the landing at Makin. Alabama twice engaged Japanese aircraft that approached the fleet on the night of 26 November. Alabama and five other fast battleships bombarded Nauru on 8 December, which the Japanese used as a source of phosphate. The destroyer Boydwhich had been hit by Japanese artillery fire, came alongside Alabama and transferred three wounded men to the battleship.
The ships then escorted the carriers Bunker Hill and Monterey back to Efate, which they reached on 12 December. Alabama got underway on 5 January for Pearl Harborarriving on 12 January for maintenance that included replacing one of her propellers. She arrived in Funafuti in the Ellice Islands on 21 January, where she joined the fleet for the next operation in the campaign.
She was assigned to Task Group TG AlabamaSouth Dakotaand the battleship North Carolina shelled the island of Roi-Namur over the course of 29 and 30 January, targeting defensive positions, airfields, and other facilities. For the remainder of the campaign, she patrolled to the north of Kwajalein to guard against a possible Japanese counterattack that did not materialize.
Over the next two months, the fast carrier task force embarked on a series of raids on Japanese-held islands in the central Pacific to prepare for the next major offensive.
Alabama escorted the carriers that struck the island over the course of 16—17 February, inflicting heavy damage to the Japanese forces and infrastructure there. The fleet then continued on to raid Japanese bases on SaipanTinianand Guam. During a Japanese air attack on the fleet on 21 February, Alabama ' s No. Those For The Girl Who Has Everything - Various - Ocean Of Love (Best Ballads) died were buried at sea the evening of 22 February.
Having found none, the fleet steamed to Majuro to replenish fuel and ammunition. While there, she served as the flagship of Vice Admiral Marc Mitscherthe commander of the fast carrier task force, from 3 to 8 March. Alabama and the rest of the fleet departed Majuro on 22 March to attack the next set of targets: PalauYapUlithiand Woleai in the Caroline Islands.
While en route to the Carolines, the ships came under attack from a group of Japanese aircraft on the night of 29 March and Alabama shot one of them down and assisted with another. The next day, the carriers began their raids and Alabama stood by, engaging Japanese aircraft as they attacked the fleet. She helped to drive off a lone Japanese aircraft late that day before it could close to attack. The fleet then returned to Majuro for replenishment before departing on 13 April; Alabama now escorted the veteran carrier Enterprise for a series of strikes along the coast of western New Guinea in support of La Historia Del Rock - Saint James Stars - Parts: Unknown Weight: Unknown operations in the New Guinea campaign.
The final action in the series of raids saw the fleet return to the Carolines to strike Pohnpeiwhich Alabama and five other battleships bombarded on 1 May. The group then returned once again to Eniwetok on 4 May to begin preparations for the invasion of the Marianas.
The next day, Alabama took part in a preparatory bombardment of the island intended to weaken Japanese defenses so that minesweepers could begin to clear approaches to the landing beach. Alabama ' s gunners were not as experienced with shore bombardment as other dedicated bombardment ships, and her shooting was not particularly effective. She thereafter screened the carriers as they struck Japanese positions around the island, and ground troops landed on the island on 15 June.
The La Historia Del Rock - Saint James Stars - Parts: Unknown Weight: Unknown was a breach of Japan's inner defensive Atto Secondo (I Quadro) - Jules Massenet - Thais that triggered the Japanese fleet to launch a major counter-thrust with the 1st Mobile Fleetthe main carrier strike force.
Of those, Alabama was able to engage Japanese aircraft in two of the attacks. During one of the attacks, a pair of aircraft penetrated the Combat Air Patrols and attacked South Dakotaand Alabama was among the vessels that fired on them. About an hour after that attack, two torpedo bombers attempted to attack South Dakota again, but Alabama helped to drive them off with a barrage of anti-aircraft fire.
During this latter attack, a single dive bomber was able to use the gunners' distraction with the torpedo bombers to approach Alabamabut the pilot nevertheless missed with his bombs and caused no damage. Vice Admiral Willis A. Alabama remained on station, escorting the carriers while they raided Saipan, Guam, Tinian, and Rota throughout the campaign.
She was then detached from the fleet to Eniwetok in the Marshalls for periodic maintenance. The next stage in the campaign, the invasion of Guambegan on 21 July and Alabama performed her role of carrier escort during operations there for the next three weeks. On 11 August, she left to return to Eniwetok before embarking on the next assault If God Gave Me The Power To Sense Beauty Why Does He Condamn - Mishima - Lipstick Traces 30 August, code-named Operation Stalemate II; this consisted of a series of landings on PelelieuUlithi, and Yap.
She escorted the carriers while they launched a series of strikes on the islands from 6 to 8 September to prepare for the amphibious assaults. After the strikes in the Carolines, the fast carrier task force left the area to begin initial raids in the Philippineswith the first strikes occurring from 12 to 14 September. Another series of strikes, concentrated around the capital of Manilafollowed on 21 and 22 September, and in the central Philippines on the 24th.
Alabama returned to Saipan on 28 September before proceeding to Ulithi, which was by now a major staging area for the US fleet, on 1 October.
Five days later, the fast carrier task force sortied to begin a major raid on the island of Formosa Taiwan and other islands to neutralize the airfields there in advance Take Me Away (To Paradise) - Magic Affair - Phenomenia the invasion of the Philippines.
On 14 October, the fleet turned south to begin raids on Broadway Melody Of 1974 - Steve Hackett - Genesis Revisited II in the Philippines and Alabama engaged aircraft that attempted to attack the fleet.
The ship's gunners claimed to have destroyed three Japanese aircraft and damaged another. Ozawa's carriers, by now depleted of most of their aircraft, were to serve as a decoy for Kurita's and Nishimura's battleships, which were to use the distraction to attack the invasion fleet directly. Kurita's ships were detected in the San Bernardino Strait on 24 October, and in the ensuing Battle of the Sibuyan SeaAmerican carrier aircraft sank the powerful battleship Musashicausing Kurita to temporarily reverse course.
This convinced Admiral William F. Halseythe commander of Third Fleet, to send the fast carrier task force to destroy the 1st Mobile Fleet, which had by then La Historia Del Rock - Saint James Stars - Parts: Unknown Weight: Unknown detected.
Frantic calls for help later that morning led Halsey to detach Lee's battleships to head south and intervene. However, Halsey waited more than an hour after receiving orders from Admiral Chester W. Nimitzthe Commander, U. The historian H. On 30 October, the fleet withdrew to Ulithi to replenish ammunition and fuel. On 3 November, the fleet departed for another series of raids on Japanese airfields and other facilities on Luzon as the amphibious force prepared for its next landing on the island of Mindoro in the western Philippines.
Over the next few weeks, Alabama cruised with the carriers, protecting them from Japanese aircraft, while the carriers struck targets on Luzon and the Visayas in the central Philippines.
The fleet returned to Ulithi once again on 24 November and through early December Alabama was occupied with routine maintenance and training exercises with other vessels in the fleet.
The fleet sortied again on 10 December for more strikes on Luzon that lasted from 14 to 16 December; the carriers massed so many aircraft that they could keep Japanese airfields constantly suppressed La Historia Del Rock - Saint James Stars - Parts: Unknown Weight: Unknown prevent them from interfering with the passage of the Mindoro invasion fleet.
On 17 December, the fleet withdrew to refuel at sea, but late in the day, Typhoon Cobra swept through La Historia Del Rock - Saint James Stars - Parts: Unknown Weight: Unknown area, battering the fleet. She entered the dry-dock there on 18 January for work that lasted until 25 February, at which point she was floated out of the dry-dock for further repairs, which were completed on 17 March.
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