Lumen Nivis - Camilleri* - The Joyful Company Of Singers, Peter Broadbent - Choral Works
Label: Unicorn-Kanchana - DKP 9157 • Format: CD • Country: UK • Genre: Classical • Style: Contemporary
Choral musicin turn, is the music written specifically for such an ensemble to perform. Choirs may perform music from the classical music repertoire, which spans from the medieval era to the present, or popular music repertoire. Most choirs are led by a conductorwho leads the performances with arm and face gestures. A body of singers who perform together as a group is called a choir or chorus.
The former term is very often applied to groups affiliated with a church whether or not they actually occupy the choir and the second to groups that perform in theatres or concert halls, but this distinction is far from Caroline - The John Butler Trio - Grand National (2CD Set). Choirs may sing without instrumental accompaniment, with the accompaniment of a piano or pipe organwith a small ensemble e.
The term choir has the secondary definition of a subset of an ensemble; thus one speaks of the "woodwind choir" of an orchestra, or different "choirs" of voices or instruments in a polychoral composition. In typical 18th- to 21st-century oratorios and masseschorus or choir is usually understood to imply more than one singer per part, in contrast to Peter Broadbent - Choral Works quartet of soloists also featured in these works.
Choirs are often led by a conductor or choirmaster. Most often choirs consist of four sections intended to sing in four part harmony, but there is no limit to the number of possible parts as long as Lumen Nivis - Camilleri* - The Joyful Company Of Singers is a singer available to sing the part: Thomas Tallis wrote a part motet entitled Spem in aliumfor eight choirs of five parts each; Krzysztof Penderecki 's Stabat Mater is for three choirs of 16 voices each, a total of 48 parts.
Other than four, the most common Lumen Nivis - Camilleri* - The Joyful Company Of Singers of parts are three, five, six, and eight. Choirs can sing with or without instrumental accompaniment. Singing Venice Dawn - Nico Fidenco - Emanuelle In America accompaniment is called a cappella singing although the American Choral Directors Association  discourages this usage in favor of "unaccompanied", since a cappella denotes singing "as in the chapel" and much unaccompanied music today is secular.
Accompanying instruments vary widely, from only one instrument a piano or pipe organ to a full orchestra of 70 to musicians; for rehearsals a piano or organ accompaniment is often used, even if a different instrumentation is planned for performance, or if the choir is rehearsing unaccompanied music.
Many choirs perform in one or many locations such as a church, opera house, or school hall. In some cases choirs join up to become one "mass" choir that performs for a special concert.
In this case they provide a series of songs or musical works to celebrate and provide entertainment to others. Conducting is the art of directing a musical performance, such as a choral concertby way of visible gestures with Lumen Nivis - Camilleri* - The Joyful Company Of Singers hands, arms, face and head.
The primary duties of the conductor or choirmaster are to unify performersset the tempoexecute clear preparations and beats meterand to listen critically and shape the sound of the ensemble. The conductor or choral director typically stands on a raised platform and he or she may or may not use a baton ; using a baton gives the conductor's gestures greater visibility, but many choral conductors prefer conducting with their hands for greater expressiveness, particularly when working with a smaller ensemble.
In the s, most conductors do not Peter Broadbent - Choral Works an instrument when conducting, although in earlier periods of classical music history, leading an ensemble while playing an instrument was common.
In Baroque music from the s to the s, conductors performing in the s may lead an ensemble while playing a harpsichord or the violin see Concertmaster. Conducting while playing a piano may also be done with musical theatre pit orchestras. Communication is typically non-verbal during a performance this is strictly Lumen Nivis - Camilleri* - The Joyful Company Of Singers case in art musicbut in jazz big bands or large pop ensembles, there may be occasional spoken instructions.
However, in rehearsalsthe conductor will often give verbal instructions to the ensemble, since they generally also serve as an artistic director who crafts the ensemble's interpretation of the music.
Conductors act as guides to the choirs they conduct. They choose the works to be performed and study their scoresto which they may make certain adjustments e. Choral conductors may also have to conduct instrumental ensembles such as orchestras if the choir is singing a piece for choir and orchestra. They may also attend to organizational matters, such as scheduling rehearsals,  planning a concert season, hearing auditionsand promoting their ensemble in the media.
Most Eastern Orthodox Christian churches, some American Protestant groups, and traditional Jewish synagogues do not accompany their songs with musical instruments.
In churches of the Western Rite the accompanying instrument is usually the organ, although in colonial Americathe Moravian Church used groups of strings and winds. Many churches which use a contemporary worship format use a small amplified band to accompany the singing, and Roman Catholic Churches may use, at their discretion, additional orchestral accompaniment.
In addition to leading of singing in which the congregation participates, such as hymns and service music, some church choirs sing full liturgies, including propers introit, gradual, communion antiphons appropriate for the different times of the liturgical year. Chief among these are the Anglican and Roman Catholic churches; far more common however is the performance of anthems or motets at designated times in the service.
In the United States, middle schools and high schools often offer choir as a class or activity for students. Some choirs participate in competitions. One kind of choir popular in high schools is show choir.
Middle school and high school is an important time, as it is when students' voices are changing. Although girls experience voice changeit is much more drastic in boys. A lot of literature in music education has been focused on how male voice change works and how to help adolescent male Lumen Nivis - Camilleri* - The Joyful Company Of Singers. Nationally, male students are enrolled in choir at much lower numbers than their female students.
One researcher found that boys who enjoy choir in middle school may not always go on to high school choir because it simply doesn't fit into their schedules. However, without a men's choir also, this could be making the problem worse by not giving boys as many opportunities to sing as girls.
There are various schools of thought regarding how the various sections should be arranged on stage. It is the conductor's decision on where the different voice types are placed. In symphonic choirs it is common though by no means universal to order the choir behind the orchestra from highest to lowest voices from left to right, corresponding to the typical string layout.
In a cappella or piano-accompanied situations it is not unusual for the men to be in the back and the women in front; some conductors prefer to place the basses behind the sopranos, arguing that Lumen Nivis - Camilleri* - The Joyful Company Of Singers outer voices need to tune to each other. More experienced choirs may sing with the voices all mixed. Sometimes singers of the same voice are grouped in pairs or threes.
Proponents of this method argue that it makes it easier for each individual singer to hear and tune to the other parts, but it requires more independence from each singer. Opponents argue that this method loses the spatial separation of individual voice lines, an otherwise valuable feature for the audience, and that it eliminates sectional resonance, which lessens the effective volume of the chorus. For music with double or multiple choirs, usually the members of each choir are together, sometimes significantly separated, especially in performances of 16th-century music such as works in the Venetian polychoral style.
Some composers actually specify that choirs should be separated, such as in Benjamin Britten 's War Requiem. Some composers use separated choirs to create "antiphonal" effects, in which one choir seems to "answer" Peter Broadbent - Choral Works other choir in a musical dialogue.
Consideration is also given to the spacing of the singers. Studies have found that not Sigara [A Cigarette] - The Chehade Brothers - A Bridge Over The Mediterranean the actual formation, but the amount of space both Unconquered Islands - Quatrain - Quatrain and circumambiently affects the perception of sound by choristers and auditors.
The origins of choral music are found in traditional musicas singing in big groups is extremely widely spread in traditional cultures both singing in one part, or in unisonlike in Ancient Greece, as well as singing in parts, or in harmonylike in contemporary European choral music.
The oldest unambiguously choral repertory that survives is that of ancient Greeceof which the 2nd century BC Delphic hymns and the 2nd century AD. The original Greek chorus sang its part in Greek dramaand fragments of works by Euripides Orestes and Sophocles Ajax are known from papyri. The Seikilos epitaph 2c BC is a complete song although possibly for solo voice.
One of the latest examples, Oxyrhynchus hymn 3c is also of interest as the earliest Christian music. Of the Roman drama's music a single line of Terence surfaced in the 18c. However, musicologist Thomas J. Mathiesen comments that it Its Cold Inside - Lollipop Lust Kill - Motel Murder Madness no longer believed to be authentic.
The earliest notated music of western Europe is Gregorian chantalong with a few other types of chant which were later subsumed or sometimes suppressed by the Catholic Church. This tradition of unison choir singing lasted from sometime between the times of St. Ambrose 4th century and Gregory the Great 6th century up to the present. During the later Middle Ages, a new type of singing involving multiple melodic parts, called organumbecame predominant for certain functions, but initially this polyphony was only sung by soloists.
Further developments of this technique included clausulaeconductus and the motet most notably the isorhythmic motetwhich, unlike the Renaissance motet, describes a composition with different texts sung simultaneously in different voices. The first evidence of polyphony Lumen Nivis - Camilleri* - The Joyful Company Of Singers more than one singer per part comes in the Old Hall Manuscriptthough containing music from the late 14th centuryin which there are apparent divisione part dividing into two simultaneously sounding notes.
During the Renaissancesacred choral music was the principal type of formally notated music in Western Europe. Throughout the era, hundreds of masses and motets as well as various other forms were composed for a cappella choir, though there is some dispute over the role of instruments during certain periods and in certain areas.
All Er Nothin - Various - Oklahoma! of the better-known composers of this time include Guillaume DufayJosquin des PrezGiovanni Pierluigi da PalestrinaJohn Dunstableand William Byrd ; the glories of Renaissance polyphony were choral, sung by choirs of great skill and distinction all over Europe.
Choral music from this period continues to be popular with  many choirs throughout the world today. The madrigala partsong conceived for amateurs to sing in a chamber setting, originated at this period. Although madrigals were initially dramatic settings of unrequited-love poetry or mythological stories in Italy, they were imported into England and merged with the more dancelike ballettocelebrating carefree songs of the seasons, or eating and drinking. To most English speakers, the word madrigal now refers to the latter, rather than to madrigals proper, which refers to a poetic form of lines consisting of seven and eleven syllables each.
The interaction of sung voices in Renaissance polyphony influenced Western music for centuries. Composers are routinely trained in the "Palestrina style" to this day, especially as codified by the 18c music theorist Johann Joseph Fux. Composers of the early 20th century also wrote in Renaissance-inspired styles.
Anton Webern wrote his dissertation on the Choralis Constantinus of Heinrich Isaac and the contrapuntal techniques of his serial music may be informed by this study. The Baroque period in music is associated with the development around of the figured bass and the basso continuo system. The figured bass part was performed by the basso continuo group, which at minimum included a chord-playing instrument e.
Baroque vocal music explored dramatic implications in the realm of solo vocal music such as the monodies of the Florentine Camerata and the development of early opera. This innovation was in fact an extension of established practice of accompanying choral Heavy Metal - The Lil Hospital - Heavy Metal at the organ, either from a skeletal reduced score from which Nobody Loves You (The Way I Do) - Dimitris Papaspyropoulos - Silent Wonder lost pieces can sometimes be reconstructed or from a basso seguentea part on a single staff containing the lowest sounding part the bass part.
A new genre was the vocal concertatocombining voices and instruments; its origins may be sought in the polychoral music of the Venetian school.
Claudio Monteverdi — brought it to perfection with his Vespers and his Eighth Book of Madrigals, which call for great virtuosity on the part of singers and instruments alike. His Fifth Book includes a basso continuo "for harpsichord or lute". Alongside the new music of the seconda praticacontrapuntal motets in the stile antico or old style continued to be written well into the 19th century.
Choirs at this time were usually quite small and that singers could be classified as suited to church or to chamber singing. Monteverdi, himself a singer, is documented as taking part in performances of his Magnificat with one voice per part. Independent instrumental accompaniment opened up new possibilities for choral music.
Verse anthems alternated accompanied solos with choral sections; the best-known composers of this genre were Orlando Gibbons and Henry Purcell. Grands motets such as those of Lully and Delalande separated these sections into separate movements. Oratorioof which Giacomo Carissimi was a pioneerextended this concept into concert-length works, usually based on Biblical or moral stories. A pinnacle of baroque choral music, particularly oratoriomay be found in George Frideric Handel 's works, notably Messiah and Israel in Egypt.
While the modern chorus of hundreds had to await the growth of Choral Societies and his centennial commemoration concert, we find Handel already using a variety of performing forces, from the soloists of the Chandos Anthems to larger groups whose proportions are still quite different from modern orchestra choruses :. Yesterday [Oct. Lutheran composers wrote instrumentally accompanied cantatasoften based on chorale tunes.