Martinů* - Panocha Quartet - String Quartets Nos. 5 & 7 Concerto Da Camera
Label: Supraphon - 1111 2675,Supraphon - 1111 2675 G • Format: Vinyl LP, Repress, Stereo • Country: Czechoslovakia • Genre: Classical • Style: Modern
A string quartet refers to a musical ensemble consisting of four string players — two violin players, a viola player and a cellist — or to a musical composition written to be performed by such a group. The string quartet is one of the most prominent chamber ensembles in classical musicmost major composers from the mid 18th century onwards having written string quartets.
The string quartet was developed into its present form by the Austrian composer Joseph Haydnwhose works in the s established the ensemble as a group of four more-or-less equal partners. Since Haydn the string Wake Up Dreaming - Little Feat - Down On The Farm has been considered a prestigious form: writing for four instruments with broadly similar characteristics both constrains Martinů* - Panocha Quartet - String Quartets Nos.
5 & 7 Concerto Da Camera tests a composer's art. String quartet composition flourished in the Classical era: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven each wrote several. In the 21st century it remains an important and refined musical form. The standard structure for a string quartet as established in the Classical era is four movements, with the first movement in Sonata formAllegro, in the tonic key; a slow movement, in a related key and a Minuet and Trio follow; and the fourth movement is often in Rondo form or Sonata rondo formin the tonic key.
Some string quartets ensembles play together for many years and become established and promoted as an entity in a similar way to an instrumental soloist or an orchestra. The early history of the string quartet is in many ways the history of Haydn's journey with the genre. Not that he composed the first quartet of all: before Haydn alighted on the genre there had been examples of divertimenti for two solo violins, viola and cello by Viennese composers such as Georg Christoph Wagenseil and Ignaz Holzbauer ; and there had long been a tradition of performing orchestral works one instrument to a part.
David Wyn Jones cites the widespread practice of four players, one to a part, playing works written for string orchestrasuch as divertimenti and serenades, there being no separate fifth contrabass part in string scoring before the 19th century.
The origins of the string quartet can be further traced back to the Baroque trio sonatain which two solo instruments performed with a continuo section consisting of a bass instrument Martinů* - Panocha Quartet - String Quartets Nos. 5 & 7 Concerto Da Camera as the cello and keyboard. A very early example is a four-part sonata for string ensemble by Gregorio Allegri — that might be considered an important prototype.
Haydn is responsible for the string quartet in its now accepted form. Although he did not invent the combination of two violins, viola and cello, previous occurrences in chamber music were more likely due to circumstance rather than conscious design.
The string quartet enjoyed no recognized status as an ensemble in the way that two violins with basso continuo — the so-called 'trio sonata' — had for more than a hundred years. Even the composition of Haydn's earliest string quartets owed more to chance than artistic imperative. It is not clear whether any of these works ended up in the two sets published in the mids and known as Haydn's Opp. Haydn's early biographer Georg Deals Gone Bad - The Longest Happy Hour 1998 - 2003 Griesinger tells the story thus:.
The following purely chance circumstance had led him to try his luck at the composition of quartets. Haydn, then eighteen years old,  took up this proposal, and so originated his first quartet which, immediately it appeared, received Speedway (Theme From Fastlane) - The Prodigy - Music For The Jilted Generation general approval that Haydn took courage to work further in this form.
Haydn went on to write nine other quartets around this time. These works were published as his Op. They have five movements and take the form: fast movement, minuet and trio I, slow movement, minuet and trio II, and fast finale. As Ludwig Finscher notes, they draw stylistically on the Austrian divertimento tradition. After these early efforts Haydn did not return to the string quartet for several years, but when he did so, it was to make a significant step in the genre's development.
The intervening years saw Haydn begin his employment as Kapellmeister to the Esterhazy princes, for whom he was required to compose numerous symphonies and dozens of trios for violin, viola and the curious bass instrument called the baryton played by Prince Nikolaus Esterhazy himself. The opportunities for experiment which both these genres offered Haydn perhaps Martinů* - Panocha Quartet - String Quartets Nos.
5 & 7 Concerto Da Camera him in the pursuit of the more advanced quartet style found in the eighteen worked published in the early s as Opp. These are written in a form that became established as standard both for Haydn and for other composers. Clearly composed as sets, these quartets feature a four-movement layout having broadly conceived, moderately paced first movements and, in increasing measure, a democratic and conversational interplay of parts, close-knit thematic development, and skilful though often self-effacing use of counterpoint.
The convincing realizations of the progressive aims of the Op. After Op. As Donald Tovey put it: "with Op. That Haydn's string quartets were already "classics" that defined the genre by can be judged by Ignaz Pleyel 's publication in Paris of a "complete" series that year, and the quartet's evolution as vehicle for public performance can be judged by Pleyel's ten-volume set of miniature scores intended for hearers rather than players, early examples of ths genre of music publishing.
Since Haydn's day the string quartet has been prestigious and considered one of the true tests of a composer's art. This may be partly because the palette of sound is more restricted than with orchestral music, forcing the music to stand more on its own rather than relying on tonal color ; or from the inherently contrapuntal tendency in music written for four equal instruments.
Quartet composition flourished in the Classical era. MozartBeethoven and Schubert each composed a number of quartets: "Beethoven in particular is credited with developing the genre in an experimental and dynamic fashion, especially in his later series of quartets written in the s up until his death.
Upon listening to an earlier performance of this quartet, Schubert had remarked, "After this, what is left for us to write? Of the late quartets, Beethoven cited his own favorite as Op. Mendelssohn's six string quartets span the full range of his career, from to ; Schumann's three string quartets were all written in and dedicated to Mendelssohn, whose quartets Schumann had been studying in preparation, along with those of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven.
In the modern era, the string quartet played a key role in the Conspirator - Cannibal Of War of Arnold Schoenberg who was the first to add a soprano in his String Quartet No. After the Second World Warsome composers, such as Pierre Boulez and Olivier Messiaen questioned the relevance of the string quartet and avoided writing them.
However, from the s onwards, many composers have shown a renewed interest in the genre. David Matthews has written eleven, and Robin Holloway both five quartets and six "quartettini". A composition for four players of stringed instruments may be in any form. Quartets written in the classical period usually have four movements with a large-scale structure similar to that of a symphony [ citation needed ] :.
Substantial modifications to the typical structure were already achieved in Beethoven's later quartetsand despite some notable examples to the contrary, composers writing in the twentieth century increasingly abandoned this structure. Further expansions have also been produced such as the String octet by Mendelssohn. Notably, Schoenberg included a soprano in the last two movements of his second string quartetcomposed in This instrumentation of adding a voice is succeeded by GinasteraFerneyhoughDavies and many others.
Another Medusas Penetration - B.A.M.H.
- Abnormal Sexuality & Disturbing Fetishes on the traditional string quartet is the electric string quartet with players performing on electric instruments.
Whereas individual string players often group together to make ad hoc string quartets, others continue to play together for many years in ensembles which may be named after the first violinist e. Established quartets may undergo changes in membership whilst retaining their original name.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from String quartets. Musical ensemble of four string players. See also: List of string quartet composers. Main article: List of string quartet ensembles. The Universal Composer. New York: Atlas Books. Archived from the original on 10 September Retrieved 8 May Classical period. Stamitz J. Stamitz Filtz Gluck C. Bach L. Mozart G. Classical orchestra String quartet. Galant music Intermezzo Pastorale Sensitive style. Baroque music Common practice period 18th-century philosophy Classicism.
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