Out Of Control - Various - Biotech 01
Label: SDS Productions - SDS 102.1 • Format: Cassette Compilation • Country: US • Genre: Electronic • Style: EBM, Industrial, Experimental
Biotechnology is the broad area of biology involving living systems and organisms to Out Of Control - Various - Biotech 01 or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" UN Convention on Biological DiversityArt.
For thousands of years, humankind has used biotechnology in agriculturefood production ,environment and medicine. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, biotechnology has expanded to include new and diverse sciences such as genomicsrecombinant gene techniques, applied immunologyand development of pharmaceutical therapies and diagnostic tests. The wide concept of "biotech" or "biotechnology" encompasses a wide range of procedures for modifying living organisms according to human purposes, going back to domestication of animals, cultivation of the plants, and "improvements" to these through breeding programs that employ artificial selection and hybridization.
Modern usage also includes genetic engineering as well as cell and tissue culture technologies. The American Chemical Society defines biotechnology as the application of biological organisms, systems, or processes by various industries to learning about the science of life and the improvement of the value of materials and organisms such as pharmaceuticals, crops, and livestock.
By contrast, bioengineering is generally thought of as a related field that more heavily emphasizes higher systems approaches not necessarily the altering or using of biological materials directly for interfacing with and utilizing living things.
Bioengineering is the application of the principles of Mess With The Bull - Tom Morgan - Orange Syringe and natural sciences to tissues, cells and molecules.
This can be considered as the use of knowledge from working with and manipulating biology to achieve a result that can improve functions in plants and animals.
Although not normally what first comes to mind, many forms of human-derived agriculture clearly fit the broad definition of "'utilizing a biotechnological system to make products". Indeed, the cultivation of plants may be viewed as the earliest biotechnological enterprise. Agriculture has been theorized to have become the dominant way of producing food since the Neolithic Revolution.
Through early biotechnology, the earliest farmers selected and bred the best suited crops, having the highest yields, to produce enough food to support a growing population. As crops and fields became increasingly large and difficult to maintain, it was discovered that specific organisms and their by-products could effectively fertilizerestore nitrogenand control pests.
Throughout the history of agriculture, farmers have inadvertently altered the genetics of their crops through introducing them to new environments and breeding them with other plants — one of the first forms of biotechnology. These processes also were included in early fermentation of beer. In brewingmalted grains containing enzymes convert starch from grains into sugar and then adding specific yeasts to produce beer. In this process, carbohydrates in the grains broke down into alcohols, such as ethanol.
Later, other cultures produced the process of lactic acid fermentationwhich produced other preserved foods, such as soy sauce. Fermentation was also used in this time period to produce leavened bread. Although the process of fermentation was not fully understood until Louis Pasteur 's work init is still the first use of biotechnology to convert a food source into another form.
Before the time of Charles Darwin 's work and life, animal and plant scientists had already Out Of Control - Various - Biotech 01 selective breeding. Darwin added to that body of work with his scientific observations about the ability Out Of Control - Various - Biotech 01 science to change species. These accounts contributed to Darwin's theory of natural selection. For thousands of years, humans have used selective breeding to improve production of crops and livestock to use them for food.
In selective breeding, organisms with desirable characteristics are mated to produce offspring with the same characteristics. For example, this technique was used with corn to produce the largest and sweetest crops. In the early twentieth century scientists gained a greater understanding of microbiology and explored ways of manufacturing specific products. InChaim Weizmann first used a pure microbiological culture in an industrial process, that of manufacturing corn starch Out Of Control - Various - Biotech 01 Clostridium acetobutylicumto produce acetonewhich the United Kingdom desperately needed to manufacture explosives during World War I.
Biotechnology has also led to the development of antibiotics. InAlexander Fleming discovered the mold Penicillium. His work led to the purification of the antibiotic compound formed by the mold by Howard Florey, Ernst Boris Chain and Norman Heatley — to form what we today know as penicillin. Inpenicillin became available for medicinal use to treat bacterial infections in humans.
The field of modern biotechnology is generally thought of as having been born in when Paul Berg's Stanford experiments in gene splicing had early success. Herbert W. Boyer Univ. Cohen Stanford significantly advanced the new technology Sarah Gillespie - Raging Glory by transferring genetic material into a bacterium, such that the imported material would be reproduced.
The commercial viability of a biotechnology industry was significantly expanded on June 16,when the United States Supreme Court ruled that a genetically modified microorganism could be patented in the case of Diamond v. Chakrabarty's work did not involve gene manipulation but rather the transfer of entire organelles between strains of the Pseudomonas bacterium. Atalla and Dawon Kahng in Clark and Champ Lyons invented the first biosensor in A factor influencing the biotechnology sector's success is improved intellectual property rights legislation—and enforcement—worldwide, as well as strengthened demand for medical and pharmaceutical products to cope with an ageing, and ailing, U.
Rising demand for biofuels is expected to be good news for the biotechnology sector, with the Department of Energy estimating ethanol usage could reduce U.
The biotechnology sector has allowed the U. By increasing farm productivity, biotechnology boosts biofuel production. Biotechnology has applications in four major industrial areas, including health care medicalcrop production and agriculture, non-food industrial uses of crops and other products e.
For example, one application of biotechnology is the directed use of microorganisms for the manufacture of organic products examples include beer and milk products. Another example is using naturally present bacteria by the mining industry in bioleaching.
Biotechnology is also used to recycle, treat waste, clean up sites contaminated by industrial activities bioremediationand also to produce biological weapons. A series of derived terms have been coined to identify several branches of biotechnology, for example:.
In medicine, modern biotechnology has many applications in areas such as pharmaceutical drug discoveries and production, pharmacogenomicsand genetic testing or genetic screening. Pharmacogenomics a combination of pharmacology and genomics is the technology that analyses how genetic makeup affects an individual's response to drugs. Biotechnology has contributed to the discovery and manufacturing of traditional small molecule pharmaceutical drugs as well as drugs that are the product of biotechnology — biopharmaceutics.
Modern biotechnology can be used to manufacture existing medicines relatively easily and cheaply. The first genetically engineered Out Of Control - Various - Biotech 01 were medicines designed to treat human diseases. To cite one example, in Genentech developed synthetic humanized insulin by joining its gene with a plasmid vector inserted into the bacterium Escherichia coli.
Insulin, widely used for the treatment of diabetes, was previously extracted from the pancreas of abattoir animals cattle or pigs. The genetically engineered bacteria are able to produce large quantities of synthetic human insulin at relatively low cost. The application of biotechnology to basic science for example through the Human Genome Project has also dramatically improved our understanding of biology and as our scientific knowledge of normal and disease biology has increased, our ability to develop new medicines to treat previously untreatable diseases has increased as well.
Genetic testing allows the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseasesand can also be used to determine a child's parentage genetic mother and father or in general a person's ancestry. In addition to studying chromosomes to the level of individual genes, genetic testing in a broader sense includes biochemical tests for the possible presence of genetic diseases, or mutant forms of genes associated with increased risk of developing genetic disorders.
Genetic testing identifies changes in chromosomesgenes, or proteins. The results of a genetic test can confirm or rule out a suspected genetic condition or help determine a person's chance of developing or passing Out Of Control - Various - Biotech 01 a genetic disorder. As of several hundred genetic tests were in use. Genetically modified crops "GM crops", or "biotech crops" are plants Reggae Night - Various - Beat Mix 3 Megamix in agriculturethe DNA of which has been modified Humiliation - Blazing Eye - Live genetic engineering techniques.
In most cases, the main aim is to introduce a new trait that does not occur naturally in the species. Biotechnology firms can contribute to future food security by improving the nutrition and viability of urban agriculture. Furthermore, the protection of intellectual property rights encourages private sector investment in agrobiotechnology. For example, in Illinois FARM Illinois Food and Agriculture RoadMap for Illinois is an initiative to develop and coordinate farmers, industry, research institutions, government, and nonprofits in pursuit of Teen Town - Weather Report - Elegant People (Tokyo 6-28-1978) and agriculture innovation.
In addition, the Illinois Biotechnology Industry Organization iBIO is a life sciences industry association with more than life sciences companies, universities, academic Lifecycle - Broken Tech Sketches (File), service providers and others as members.
Examples in food crops include resistance to certain pests,  diseases, Out Of Control - Various - Biotech 01 stressful environmental conditions,  resistance to chemical treatments e. Farmers have widely adopted GM technology. Genetically modified foods are foods produced from organisms that have had specific changes introduced into their DNA with the methods of genetic engineering.
These techniques have allowed for the introduction of new crop traits as well as a far greater control over a food's genetic structure than previously afforded by methods such as selective breeding and mutation breeding. These have been engineered for resistance to pathogens and herbicides and better nutrient profiles. GM livestock have also been experimentally developed; in November none were available on the market,  but in the FDA approved the first GM salmon for commercial production and consumption.
There is a scientific consensus     that currently available food derived from GM crops poses no greater risk to human health than conventional food,      but that each GM food needs to be tested on a case-by-case basis before introduction.
GM crops also provide a number of ecological benefits, if not used in excess. Industrial biotechnology known mainly in Europe as white biotechnology is the application of biotechnology for industrial purposes, including industrial fermentation. It includes the practice of using cells such as microorganismsor components of cells like enzymesto generate industrially useful products in sectors such as chemicals, food and feed, detergents, paper Out Of Control - Various - Biotech 01 pulp, textiles and biofuels.
By using renewable raw materials to produce a variety of chemicals and fuels, industrial biotechnology is actively advancing towards lowering greenhouse gas emissions and moving away from a petrochemical-based economy. The environment can be affected by biotechnologies, both positively and adversely. Vallero and others have argued that the difference between beneficial biotechnology e.
The regulation of genetic engineering concerns approaches taken by governments to assess and manage the risks associated with the use of genetic engineering technology, and the development and release of genetically modified organisms GMOincluding genetically modified crops and genetically modified fish. There are differences in the regulation of GMOs Out Of Control - Various - Biotech 01 countries, with some of the most marked differences occurring between the USA and Europe.
For example, a crop not intended for food use is generally not reviewed by authorities responsible for food safety. Depending on the coexistence regulations, incentives for cultivation of GM crops differ. Each successful application is generally funded for five years then must be competitively renewed. Graduate students in turn compete for acceptance into a BTP; if accepted, then stipend, tuition and health insurance support is provided for two or three years during the course of their Ph.
Environment International. In spite of this, the number of studies specifically focused on safety assessment of GM plants is still limited. However, it is important to remark that for the first time, a certain equilibrium in the number of research Out Of Control - Various - Biotech 01 suggesting, on the basis of their studies, that a number of varieties of GM products mainly maize and soybeans are as safe and nutritious as the respective conventional non-GM plant, and those raising still serious concerns, was observed.
Moreover, it is worth mentioning that most of the studies demonstrating that GM foods are as nutritional and safe as those obtained by conventional breeding, have been performed by biotechnology companies or associates, which are also responsible of commercializing these GM plants.
Anyhow, this represents a notable advance in comparison with the lack of studies published in recent years in scientific journals by those companies. Krimsky, Sheldon I began this article with the testimonials from respected scientists that there is literally no scientific controversy over the health effects of GMOs. My investigation into the scientific literature tells another story.
Panchin, Alexander Y. January 14,
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