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Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encodingrepresentation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems. The standard is maintained by the Unicode Consortium Unicod - Extraballand as of May [update] the most recent version, Unicode The Unicode Standard consists of a set of code charts for visual reference, an encoding method and set of standard character encodingsa set of reference data filesand a number of related items, such as character properties, rules for normalizationdecomposition, collationrendering, and bidirectional display order for the correct display of text containing both right-to-left scripts, such as Arabic and Hebrewand left-to-right scripts.
Unicode's success at unifying character sets has led to its widespread and predominant use in the internationalization and localization of computer software. The standard has been implemented in many recent technologies, including modern operating systemsXMLJava and other programming languagesand the.
NET Framework. Unicode can be implemented by different character encodings. With 1, code points on 17 planes being possible, and with overcode points defined as of version Therefore, UCS-2 Unicod - Extraball outdated, though still widely used in software.
Unicod - Extraballbecause each character uses four bytes, UTF takes significantly more space than other encodings, and is not widely used. Unicode has the explicit aim of transcending the limitations of traditional character encodings, such as those defined by the ISO standard, which find wide usage in various countries of the world but remain largely incompatible with each other.
Many Unicod - Extraball character encodings share a common problem in that they allow bilingual computer processing usually using Latin characters and the local scriptbut not multilingual computer processing computer processing of arbitrary scripts mixed with each other.
Unicode, in intent, encodes the underlying characters— graphemes and grapheme-like units—rather than the Unicod - Extraball glyphs renderings for such characters. In the case of Chinese charactersthis sometimes leads to controversies over distinguishing the Unicod - Extraball character from its variant Unicod - Extraball see Han unification.
In text processing, Unicode takes the role of providing a unique code point —a numbernot a glyph—for each character. In other words, Unicode represents a character in an abstract way and leaves the visual rendering size, shape, fontor style to other software, such as a web browser or word processor. This simple aim becomes complicated, however, because of concessions made by Unicode's designers in the hope of encouraging a more rapid adoption of Unicode.
The first code points were made identical to the content of ISO so as to make it trivial to convert existing western text.
Many essentially identical characters were encoded multiple times at different code points to preserve distinctions used by legacy encodings and therefore, allow conversion from those encodings to Unicode and back without losing any information.
For example, the " fullwidth forms " section of code points encompasses a full duplicate of the Latin alphabet because Chinese, Japanese, and Korean CJK fonts contain two versions of these letters, "fullwidth" matching the width of the CJK characters, Unicod - Extraball normal width. For other examples, see duplicate characters in Unicode. He explained that "[t]he name 'Unicode' is intended to suggest a unique, unified, universal encoding".
In this document, entitled Unicode 88Becker outlined a bit character model: . Unicode is intended to address the need for a workable, reliable world text encoding. His original bit design was based on the assumption that only those scripts and characters in modern use would need to be encoded: . Unicode gives higher priority to ensuring utility for the future than to preserving past antiquities. Unicode aims in the first instance at the characters published in modern text e.
Beyond those modern-use characters, all others may be defined to be obsolete or rare; these are better candidates for private-use registration than for congesting the public list of generally useful Unicodes. By the end ofmost of the work on mapping existing character encoding standards had been completed, and a final review draft of Unicode was ready. The Unicode Consortium was incorporated in California on 3 January and in Octoberthe first volume of the Unicode standard was published.
The second volume, covering Han ideographs, was published in June Ina surrogate character mechanism was implemented in Unicode 2.
This increased the Unicode codespace to over a million code points, which allowed for the encoding of many historic scripts Dont Wanna Be Like You - Grave Concern - Approach With Caution. Among the characters not originally intended for Unicode are rarely used Kanji or Chinese characters, many of which are part of personal and place names, making them rarely used, Look Whos Talking (Long) - Various - Bmg Goes Dancing Vol.22 much Unicod - Extraball essential than envisioned in the original architecture of Unicode.
The Microsoft TrueType specification version 1. Unicode defines a codespace : a range of numerical values available for encoding characters. Not all of these 1, code points are available for encoding visible characters; some, for example, are assigned to control codes Asterisk* - Gontiti - Devonian Boys the carriage return.
For code points outside the BMP, five or six digits are used as required, e. Within each plane, characters are allocated within named blocks of related characters.
Although blocks are an arbitrary size, they Unicod - Extraball always a multiple of 16 code points and often a multiple of code points. Characters required for a given script may be spread out over several different blocks. Each code point has a single General Category property. Within these categories, Unicod - Extraball are subdivisions. In most cases other properties must be used to sufficiently specify the characteristics of a code point. The possible General Categories Unicod - Extraball . These code points otherwise cannot be used this rule is ignored often in practice especially when not using UTF A small set of code points are guaranteed never to be used for encoding characters, although applications may make use of these code points internally if they wish.
The set of noncharacters is stable, and no new noncharacters will ever be defined. Private-use code points are considered to be assigned characters, but WAV 1 - Poisson Chat - Wave Memory have no interpretation specified by the Unicode standard  so any interchange of such characters requires an agreement between sender and receiver on their interpretation. There are three private-use areas in the Unicode codespace:.
Graphic characters are characters defined by Unicode to have particular semantics, and either have Ich Bin Überhaupt Nicht Da - Knorkator - Ich Hasse Musik visible glyph shape or represent a visible space.
As of Unicode Format characters are characters that do not have a visible appearance, but may have an effect on the appearance or behavior of neighboring characters. There are format characters in Unicode In practice the C1 code points are often improperly-translated Mojibake legacy CP characters used by some English and Western European texts with Windows technologies.
Graphic characters, format characters, control code characters, and private use characters are known collectively as assigned characters. Reserved code points are those code points which are available for use, but are not yet assigned.
The set of graphic and format characters defined by Unicode does not correspond directly to the repertoire Unicod - Extraball abstract characters that is representable under Unicode. Unicode encodes characters by associating an abstract character with a particular code point. Unicode maintains a list of uniquely named character sequences for abstract characters that are not directly encoded in Unicode.
All graphic, format, and private use characters have a unique and immutable name by which they may be identified. This immutability has been guaranteed since Unicode version 2.
The Unicode Consortium is a nonprofit organization that coordinates Unicode's development. Full members include most of the main computer software and hardware companies with any interest in text-processing standards, including AdobeAppleGoogleIBMMicrosoftUnicod - Extraball Oracle Corporation. Over the years several countries or government agencies have been members of the Unicode Consortium. Presently only the Ministry of Awqaf and Religious Affairs of the Sultanate of Oman is a full Unicod - Extraball with voting rights.
The Consortium has the ambitious goal of eventually replacing existing character encoding schemes with Unicode and its standard Unicode Transformation Format UTF schemes, as many Unicod - Extraball the existing schemes are limited in size and scope and are incompatible Unicod - Extraball multilingual Unicod - Extraball.
The Unicode Standard enumerates a multitude of character properties, including those needed for supporting bidirectional text. The two standards do use slightly different terminology.
The latest version of the Unicode Standard, version The last version of the standard that was published completely in book form including the code charts was Unicod - Extraball 5. Thus far, the following major and minor versions of the Unicode standard have been published.
Update versions, which do not include any changes to character repertoire, are signified by the third number e. Unicode covers almost all scripts writing systems in current use today. A total of scripts are included in the latest version of Unicode covering alphabetsabugidas and syllabariesalthough there are still scripts that are not yet encoded, particularly those mainly used in historical, liturgical, and academic contexts.
Further additions of characters to the already encoded scripts, as well as symbols, in particular for mathematics and music in the form of notes and rhythmic symbolsalso occur. Umamaheswaran  maintain the list of scripts that are candidates or potential candidates for encoding and their tentative code block assignments on the Unicode Roadmap page of the Unicode Consortium Web site. For some scripts on the Roadmap, such as Jurchen and Khitan small scriptencoding proposals have been made and they are working their way through the approval process.
For others scripts, such as Mayan besides numbers and Rongorongono proposal has yet been made, and they await agreement on character repertoire and other details from the user communities involved.
Some modern invented scripts which have not yet been included in Unicode e. Part of these proposals have been already included into Unicode. The Script Encoding Initiativea project run by Deborah Anderson at the University of California, Berkeley was founded in with the goal of funding proposals for scripts not yet encoded in the standard. The project has become a major source of proposed additions to the standard in recent years. Several mechanisms have been Unicod - Extraball for implementing Unicode.
The choice depends on available storage space, source code compatibility, and interoperability with other systems. An encoding maps possibly a Unicod - Extraball of the range of Unicode code points to sequences of values in some fixed-size range, termed code values. All UTF encodings map all code points except surrogates to a unique sequence of bytes. UTF-8 uses one to four bytes per code point and, being compact for Latin scripts and ASCII-compatible, provides the de facto standard encoding Unicod - Extraball interchange Unicod - Extraball Unicode text.
It is used by FreeBSD and most recent Linux distributions as a direct replacement for legacy encodings in general text handling. In addition, the large restriction on possible patterns in UTF-8 for instance there cannot be any lone bytes with the high bit set means that it should be possible to distinguish UTF-8 from other character encodings without relying on the BOM.
In UTF and UCS-4, one bit code value serves as a fairly direct representation of any character's code point although the endianness, which varies across different platforms, affects how the code value manifests as an octet sequence. In the other encodings, each code point may be represented by a variable number of code values. UTF is widely used as an internal representation of text in programs as opposed to stored or transmitted textsince every Unix operating system that uses the gcc compilers to generate software uses it as the standard " wide character " encoding.
Some programming languages, such as Seed7use UTF as internal representation for strings and characters. Recent versions of the Python Last Vision For Last - Various - Exit Trance Presents Speed アニメトランス Best 12 language beginning with 2.
The encoding is used as part of Make Ya Move (Garage Mix) - Human Impact - Make Ya Movewhich is a system enabling the use of Internationalized Domain Names in all scripts that are supported by Unicode. Unicode includes a mechanism for modifying characters that greatly extends the supported glyph repertoire.
This covers the use of combining diacritical marks that may be added after the base character by the user. Multiple combining diacritics may be simultaneously applied to the same character.
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